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This page includes references and resources for mental health professionals                  interested in learning more about:

  • The theory underlying PST and EC-PST

  • Research supporting the efficacy of this approach across multiple psychological problems among various age and ethnic groups

  • Assessment of social problem solving

Click the pictures on the right side to access the web sites

for the book, videotape, and self-report measure.



Nezu, A. M., Nezu, C. M., Gerber, H. R., & Damico, J. L. (2022). Emotion-centered problem-solving therapy. In G. J. G. Asmundson

(Ed.), Comprehensive clinical psychology (2nd ed., vol. 6), pp. 129-139. New York: Elsevier.

Nezu, A. M. & Nezu, C. M. (2021). Emotion-centered problem-solving therapy. In A. Wenzel (Ed.), Handbook of cognitive behavioral

therapy (pp. 463-489). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Nezu, A. M., & Nezu, C. M. (2019). Emotion-centered problem-solving therapy: Treatment guidelines. New York: Springer Publishing

(click image to go to Springer website)

Nezu, A. M., & Nezu, C. M. (2019). Emotion-centered problem-solving therapy: Client workbook. New York: Springer Publishing.

Nezu, A. M., & Nezu, C. M., & Hays, A. M. (2019). Emotion-centered problem-solving therapy. In K. Dobson & D. Dozois (Eds.).

Handbook of cognitive-behavioral therapies (4th ed.; pp. 171-190). New York: Guilford.

Nezu, A. M., Nezu, C. M. & Gerber, H. R. (2019). (Emotion-centered) problem-solving therapy: An update. Australian Psychologist,

54, 361-371.

Nezu, A. M., Nezu, C. M., & Greenfield, A. P. (2018). Problem solving. In S. C. Hayes & S. G. Hofmann (Eds.), Process-based CBT: the

science and core clinical competencies of behavioral cognitive therapy (pp. 273-284). Oakland, CA: Context Press.


Barnes, T. N., Wang, F., & O'Brien, K. M. (2018). A meta‐analytic review of social problem‐solving interventions in preschool

settings. Infant and Child Development, e2095.

Bell, A. C., & D’Zurilla, T. J. (2009). Problem-solving therapy for depression: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 348-


Cape, J., Whittington, C., Buszewicz, M., Wallace, P., & Underwood, L. (2010). Brief psychological therapies for anxiety and

depression in primary care: meta-analysis and meta-regression. BMC Medicine, 8, 38.

Cuijpers, P., de Wit, L., Kleiboer, A., Karyotaki, E., & Ebert, D. D. (2018). Problem-solving therapy for adult depression: An updated

meta-analysis. European Psychiatry, 48, 27-37.

Cuijpers, P., van Straten, A., & Warmerdam, L. (2007). Problem solving therapies for depression: A meta-analysis. European

Psychiatry, 22, 9-15.

Fitzpatrick, S. L., Schumann, K. P., & Hill-Briggs, F. (2013). Problem solving interventions for diabetes self-management and

control: a systematic review of the literature. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 100, 145-161.

Holloway, E. E., Xie, J., Sturrock, B. A., Lamoureux, E. L., & Rees, G. (2015). Do problem-solving interventions improve psychosocial

outcomes in vision impaired adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Patient Education and Counseling, 98, 553-564.

Kirkham, J. G., Choi, N., & Seitz, D. P. (2016). Meta‐analysis of problem solving therapy for the treatment of major depressive

disorder in older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31, 526-535.

Kiosses, D. N., & Alexopoulos, G. S. (2014). Problem-solving therapy in the elderly. Current Treatment Opinions in Psychiatry, 1, 15-


Linde, K., Sigterman, K., Kriston, L., Rücker, G., Jamil, S., Meissner, K., & Schneider, A. (2015). Effectiveness of psychological

treatments for depressive disorders in primary care: systematic review and meta-analysis. The Annals of Family Medicine, 13, 56-68.

Malouff, J. M., Thorsteinsson, E. B., & Schutte, N. S. (2007). The efficacy of problem solving therapy in reducing mental and

physical health problems: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 46-57.

Nieuwsma, J. A., Trivedi, R. B., McDuffie, J., Kronish, I., Benjamin, D., & Williams Jr, J. W. (2012). Brief psychotherapy for depression:

a systematic review and meta-analysis. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 43, 129-151.

Simon, S. S., Cordás, T. A., & Bottino, C. M. (2015). Cognitive behavioral therapies in older adults with depression and cognitive

deficits: a systematic review. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 30, 223-233.

Zhang, A., Park, S., Sullivan, J. E., & Jing, S. (2018). The effectiveness of problem-solving therapy for primary care patients'

depressive and/or anxiety disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 31, 139-150.


PST/EC-PST has been found to be effective for the following psychological problems and patient populations. See the Nezu & Nezu (2019) book for a description of such randomized clinical trials.

  • Adolescents with emotional/behavioral disorders

  • Anxiety and depression

  • Asperger Syndrome/Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Cancer

  • Cardiovascular problems

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • Depression

  • Depression among older adults

  • Diabetes

  • End-stage renal disease

  • Healthy older adults 


  • Infertility

  • Insomnia

  • Intellectually disabled adults

  • Pain

  • Parental/family/informal caregivers

  • Perinatal/postpartum depression

  • PTSD symptoms

  • Stroke

  • Substance abuse

  • Suicide

  • Traumatic brain injury

  • Veteran/military populations

  • Vision problems


Nezu, A. M., & Nezu, C. M. (2009). Problem-solving therapy. APA DVD Series on Systems of Psychotherapy. Washington, DC:

American Psychological Association.

Nezu, A. M., & Nezu, C. M. (2018). Emotion-centered problem-solving therapy: Working with clients with suicidal ideation. APA DVD

Series on Specific Treatments for Specific Problems. Washington, DC: American Psychological Associations. (click image to go to APA website)


D’Zurilla, T. J., Nezu, A. M., & Maydeu-Olivares, A. (2002). Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R): Technical manual.

North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems. (click image to go to MHS website)

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